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Manuscript Formatting

We prefer uniform formatting for all of our journals irrespective of areas of research. However, the editorial board of the journals have cumulatively decided to follow a certain standard template for the manuscripts. We have followed the APA method of formatting to maintain uniformity in the paper, however, authors are free to choose their style/design of writing based on their convenience. We believe in the substantive quality of the content and do not put major emphasis only on the procedural aspects of the paper. However, as and when needed, authors shall be contacted by the editorial board for the necessary changes/modifications.

Manuscript Preparation

Title Page
Title page including title of study, authors’ names and affiliations. Details regarding the corresponding author should be mentioned in the footnote on the title page.

Acknowledgement
A note is given on the front page for recognizing any help that made the research possible.

Abstract:
The abstract should be 150 to 200-word long (should not include authors' names or other identifying evidence) followed by 5-7 keywords that describe the main theme of the research.

Text formatting:
The entire manuscript should be in 12-point font and be double spaced.

Times New Roman font be used throughout the manuscript.

Headings and Subheadings
Three heading levels are used for the general organization of the manuscript.

  • First level heading should be bold and uppercase

  • Second Level Heading Should be lowercase and bold 

  • Third Level of subheading should be bold and italics


Tables & Figures
Tables and figures should hold proper captions and a number corresponding to their order in the text.

Equations
Typed or printed equations should be included in the text. Serial Arabic numerals in parentheses at the right margin are used to mark important equations.

Reference Guidelines

FOOTNOTES IN BLUEBOOK CITATION ARE USED ONLY IN BLACK AVIAT INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF LAW AND POLICY

ALL OTHER JOURNALS NEED TO FOLLOW APA CITATION IN INTEXT REFERENCING STYLE

In text Citation

• This was reinforced by recent research on the topic (Johnson, Smith, & Marcus 1999).
• In another study by Acheson (1990)
• If a text has more than six authors, the term "et al." with no additional punctuation marks may be used after the first author listed in the publication credits. Like; (This was not accurate according to a recent study (Johnson et al. 2003)).
• Series of references should be separated by semicolon. ..… (Green 1995; Mundi 1987; Smith & Wallop 1989).

Journal Article
Alahoul, M. R. M., Azizan, N., & Alwi, N. H. (2016). Factors that affect the use of Malaysian e-learning websites by visually impaired users in the transfer of Islamic knowledge. Journal of Advanced Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 1(1), 30-40.
Silva, H. M. S. V., & Madushani, R. A. I. (2017). The impact of human resource competencies of front line employees on tourist arrivals of unclassified hotels in Western province, Sri Lanka. Journal of Advanced Research in Social Sciences and Humanities, 2(1), 09-16.

Book & Book Chapters
Hemingway, E. (1999). The killers. In J. Updike & K. Kenison (Eds.), The best American short stories of the century (pp.78-80). Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Welch, K. E. (1999). Electric rhetoric: Classical rhetoric, oralism, and a new literacy. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Neuman, W. L. (1994). Qualitative Research Design. In Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches (2nd ed). Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.

Dissertations & Theses
Valencia, A. (1995). An examination of selected characteristics of Mexican-American battered women and implications for service providers (Ph.D. dissertation). Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology, University of the Pacific, Stockton, California.

Web Version of Newspaper
Blank, R. M. (2008). How we measure poverty. Los Angeles Times. Retrieved from http://www.latimes.com/news/opinion/sunday/commentary/laoeblank152008sep15,0,7811609.story

Online Magazine
Leonard, A. (2005). Embracing the dark side of the brand. Salon, Retrieved from http://www.salon.com/mwt/feature/2005/05/18/star_wars_lego/index_np.html

Government Report
United States, Deptartment of Housing and Urban Development. (1999). Rehab a home with HUD's 203(k): HUD and FHA are on your side. Washington, DC: U.S. Deptment of Housing and Urban Development.

Conference Paper
Zorrow, M., & Pershing, E. Q. (2004). Children and Language. Presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Language Association, August 16, Los Angeles, CA.

An excerpt from APA has been recommended in the text below. Full authors guide can be downloaded from https://www.apa.org/pubs/authors/new-author-guide.pdf

Central to the quality of an empirical research paper or literature review is its substantive core—that is, the research questions that are posed; the ways in which they are conceptualized; and the methodological soundness with which they are studied, assessed, and interpreted. From this perspective, we consider, in turn, various sections of the manuscript and refer the interested reader to more extensive description of the qualities of a strong research paper in the Publication Manual.

  1. Title and abstract. The title and the abstract are key elements that inform the reader of the contents of the manuscript and, as a rule, are the parts of the manuscript that gain the widest exposure. Haggan (2003) observed a trend toward increasing informativeness of titles and referred to them as “texts in miniature,” which in this fastpaced world of information overload “must add to the reader’s mental representation of the world” (p. 312). Given the title’s prominence, we encourage authors to exercise thought and creativity in selecting a title that will capture the reader’s attention and clearly inform the reader of the contents within. Similarly, the abstract is read by far more readers than is the average article. The abstract serves important purposes in summarizing the hypotheses, design, and findings of the study and in representing the article in indexing databases. Readers frequently decide whether to delve further into an article on the basis of the abstract. Thus, a well-written abstract that conveys the research questions and findings succinctly can entice readers to learn more. It is not an understatement to say that “a well-prepared abstract can be the most important single paragraph in an article” Some journals use structured abstracts, in which participants, methods, results, and conclusions are set off in separate sections. Regardless of whether these elements are formally set off, authors should include these aspects of the study and seek to provide the information accurately and coherently and in a nonevaluative manner.

  2. Introduction. A strong introduction engages the reader in the problem of interest and provides a context for the study at hand. In introducing the research concern, the writer should provide a clear rationale for why the problem deserves new research, placing the study in the context of current knowledge and prior theoretical and empirical work on the topic. Responsible scholarship stipulates that the writer properly credit the work of others. Whereas it is impractical to exhaustively describe all prior research, the most current and relevant studies should be cited. Swales and Feak (2004) identified four cornerstones of the introduction in a research paper, advising authors  to establish current knowledge of the field;  to summarize previous research, providing the wider context and background and the importance of the current study;  to set the stage for the present research, indicating gaps in knowledge and presenting the research question; and  to introduce present research, stating its purpose and outlining its design. Within this framework, the writer states the hypotheses of the current study and their correspondence to the research design.

  3. Method. In both quantitative and qualitative research, the use of appropriate methods of participant sampling, study design, measures, and statistical analysis critically influences the study’s methodological soundness. Calfee and Valencia (2007) suggested that good methodology can be described by the two “Cs”—clean and clear. The soundness of the study hinges on clean methodology, that is, use of appropriate, valid, and unflawed methods of sampling and use of instruments, procedures, and analysis. In a clean study, Calfee and Valencia (2007) noted that the researcher ensures that (a) sample variables are free of confounding influences (e.g., education is controlled for), (b) recruitment and sampling techniques are appropriate, (c) measures are reliable and valid for assessing the variables of interest, and (d) the statistical procedures are appropriate and sufficiently sophisticated to examine the data and are carried out appropriately.

  4.  Results and discussion. The Results section should include a summary of the collected data and analyses, which follows from the analytic plan. All results should be described, including unexpected findings. Authors should include both descriptive statistics and tests of significance. The Publication Manual provides information on tests of significance, including null hypothesis testing, effect sizes, confidence intervals, inferential statistics, and supplementary analyses. In the Discussion section, the writer evaluates and interprets the findings. This section should begin with a statement of support or nonsupport for the original hypotheses in light of the findings. If the hypotheses were not supported, the author considers post hoc explanations. In interpreting the results, authors consider sources of bias and other threats to internal validity, imprecision of measures, overall number of tests or overlap among tests, effect sizes, and other weaknesses of the study (APA, 2010, p. 35). Limitations and a discussion of the importance of the findings should conclude the discussion. Providing a link to future research, the author may offer recommendations for further study. More specific recommendations are more useful. As Skelton (1994) observed, researchers too often end their papers with a recommendation that is “too imprecise to be operationalized, or too grand to be implemented by a decision at much lower than a ministerial level”

  5. Tables and figures. Tables and figures are particularly valuable for conveying large amounts of information and for showing relationships among data. The expanding development of advanced tools for graphic display provides authors with greater flexibility and capability for illustrating their results. Such tools can convey information in visually engaging ways that facilitate the reader’s understanding of comparisons and evaluations of change over time. Authors should avoid duplicate reporting of data but instead should decide on the most comprehensible ways of presenting the information, whether it is through text or through tabular or graphic form. Good tables and figures should be structured according to APA Style and be clear and self-explanatory so that, with their captions, they can stand apart from the text. In addition to Chapter 5 of the Publication Manual on displaying results, the interested writer may wish to consult the APA publication, Displaying Your Findings (Nicol & Pexman, 2010), as well as the article on this topic published in the American Psychologist